A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing, printing as well as engineering and building to measure distances or to rule straight lines. The ruler is a straightedge which may also contain calibrated lines to measure distances.

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Renewing drum-brake shoes

Separate drum A front break with a drum separate from the hub. The hub stays in place when the...

Checking, adjusting and refitting drive belts

How the drive belt runs The belt runs in V-pulleys and drives the generator and water pump, with...

Testing an alternator and checking output

Testing drive-belt tension Check drive-belt tension by pushing or pulling the belt inwards at th...

How to overhaul a Stromberg carburettor

The Stromberg carburettor does not have a regular service schedule, but should be cleaned about ...

Adjusting the clutch

To work efficiently, the clutch needs the right amount of play in the linkage between the foot pe...

How to replace dampers

Where dampers are located If dampers are worn or damaged they affect not only ride and comfort b...

Replacing track-rod-end ball joints

This type of steering gear usually has just one replaceable ball joint at the outer end of each ...

Replacing steering-rack gaiters

Removing a gaiter Loosen clip or untwist or cut off wire clips, and throw them away. Replace wit...

Adjusting toe alignment on wheels

Camber check Prepare the car in the same way as for the toe-in check. The ideal measuring tool f...

Checking and cleaning a fixed-jet carburettor

A typical fixed-jet carburettor This carburettor is typical of fixed-jet designs. The body is in...

How to remove a cylinder head

Remove the air cleaner: on some cars there may be pipes from the emission-control system fixed t...

Renewing alternator brushes

Removing the brushes and cleaning the strips Unfasten the recessed bolts to remove the moulded c...

Adjusting and replacing a power-steering drive belt

The belt that drives a power-steering hydraulic-fluid pump is usually at the front of the engine,...

How to align headlights at home

Measure the height of the lamp centres from the ground. Draw a horizontal line on the wall at th...

Checking the oil pump

Measure the gap between the straight-edge and the surface of the vanes and rotor, using a 13mm f...